Dictionary, Census of Population, 2021
Figure 2.4A
Indigenous languages

Release date: August 17, 2022

Description for Figure 2.4A

Figure 2.4A provides an overview of the Indigenous languages component. The Indigenous languages category is broken down into 13 major branches, including: Algonquian languages, Athabaskan languages, Haida, Inuktuk (Inuit) languages, Iroquoian languages, Ktunaxa (Kutenai), Michif, Salish languages, Siouan languages, Tsimshian languages, Wakashan languages, Indigenous languages not included elsewhere and Indigenous languages not otherwise specified. Haida, Ktunaxa (Kutenai), Michif, Indigenous languages not included elsewhere and Indigenous languages not otherwise specified are not broken down further.

By contrast, Algonquian languages are broken down into: Blackfoot; Cree‑Innu languages, which include Atikamekw, Ililimowin (Moose Cree), Inu Ayimun (Southern East Cree), Iyiyiw‑Ayimiwin (Northern East Cree), Nehinawewin (Swampy Cree), Nehiyawewin (Plains Cree), Nihithawiwin (Woods Cree), Cree not otherwise specified, Innu (Montagnais) and Naskapi; Eastern Algonquin languages which include Mi'kmaq and Wolastoqewi (Malecite); Ojibway‑Potawatomi languages which include Anicinabemowin (Algonquin), Oji‑Cree, Anishinaabemowin (Chippewa), Daawaamwin (Odawa), Saulteau (Western Ojibway) and Ojibway not otherwise specified; meanwhile, Algonquian languages not included elsewhere are not broken down further.

Likewise, Athabaskan languages are broken down into Northern Athabaskan languages which include Dakelh (Carrier), Dane‑zaa (Beaver), Dene not otherwise specified, Gwich'in, Deh Gah Ghotie Zhatie (South Slavey), Satuotine Yati (North Slavey), Slavey not otherwise specified, Kaska (Nahani), Tahltan, Tlicho (Dogrib), Tse'khene (Sekani), Tsilhqot'in (Chilcotin), Tsuu T'ina (Sarsi), Northern Tutchone, Southern Tutchone, Tutchone not otherwise specified and Wetsuwet'en‑Babine. Athabaskan languages also include Tlingit and Athabaskan languages not included elsewhere which are not broken down further.

Inuktut (Inuit) languages include: Inuinnaqtun, Inuvialuktun, Inuktitut and Inuktut (Inuit) languages not included elsewhere.

Iroquoian languages include: Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida and Iroquoian languages not included elsewhere.

Salish languages include: Halkomelem, Lillooett, Ntlakapamux (Thompson), Secwepemctsin (Shuswap), Squamish, Straits, Syilx (Okanagan) and Salish languages not included elsewhere.

Siouan languages include: Assiniboine, Dakota, Stoney and Siouan languages not included elsewhere.

Tsimshian languages include: Gitxsan (Gitksan), Nisga'a and Tsimshian.

Lastly, Wakashan languages include: Haisla, Heiltsuk, Kwak'wala (Kwakiutl), Nuu‑chah‑nulth (Nootka) and Wakashan languages not included elsewhere.

Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2021.

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