Dictionary, Census of Population, 2021
Residence on or off reserve

Release date: November 17, 2021Updated on: September 21, 2022


Residence on or off reserve refers to whether the person's usual place of residence is in a census subdivision (CSD) that is defined as 'on reserve' or 'off reserve.'

'On reserve' includes eight CSD types legally affiliated with First Nations or Indian bands, i.e., Indian reserve (IRI), Indian settlement (S‑É) (except for the two Indian settlements of Champagne Landing 10 and Kloo Lake, located in Yukon), Indian government district (IGD), Terres réservées aux Cris (TC), Terres réservées aux Naskapis (TK), Nisga'a land (NL), Tsawwassen Lands (TWL) and Tla'amin Lands (TAL).

'Off reserve' includes all CSDs in Canada not defined as 'on reserve.'

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Reported in

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Reported for

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The definition of residence on reserve includes some census subdivisions for which a First Nation has signed a modern treaty or a self‑government agreement that provides them land ownership.

For additional information on the collection and dissemination of Indigenous data, including incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements, refer to the Indigenous Peoples Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021 and the Indigenous Peoples Technical Report, Census of Population, 2021.

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