Focus on Geography Series, 2021 Census
About this product
Catalogue number and how to cite
Catalogue number: 98-404-X2021001
How to cite: Statistics Canada. 2022. Focus on Geography Series. 2021 Census. Statistics Canada Catalogue number 98-404-X2021001. Ottawa. Released February 9, 2022.
https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2021/as-sa/fogs-spg/index.cfm?lang=e (accessed December 01, 2022).
Data are from the 2021 Census of Population and include characteristics for:
- Population and dwellings counts
- Age, sex at birth and gender
- Type of dwelling
- Families, households and marital status
- Language, Language of work
- Immigration, place of birth, and citizenship
- Ethnocultural and religious diversity
- Indigenous peoples
The Focus on Geography Series provides 2021 Census data for various levels of geography. These geographic levels include:
- Province or territory
- Census division (CD)
- Census subdivision (CSD)
- Census metropolitan area (CMA) and census agglomeration (CA)
Data are available according to the 2021 Census of Population release schedule. For more information, refer to 2021 Census dissemination planning: Release plans.
About the data
Incompletely enumerated reserves or settlements
In 2021, a total of 63 census subdivisions defined as reserves and settlements were incompletely enumerated. For these reserves and settlements, dwelling enumeration was either not permitted or could not be completed because of the various reasons below.
This represents an increase compared with the 14 census subdivisions defined as reserves and settlements that were incompletely enumerated in the 2016 Census. Health and safety restrictions put in place to slow the spread of COVID-19 and natural events (including evacuations because of forest fires) contributed to the incomplete enumeration of many reserves and settlements.
The 2021 Census population and dwelling counts are not available for the 63 incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements, and are not included in 2021 Census tabulations. Data for geographic areas containing one or more of these reserves and settlements are noted accordingly. Because of the missing data, users are cautioned that—for the affected geographic areas—comparisons (e.g., percentage change) between 2016 and 2021 may not be precise. The impact of the missing data for higher-level geographic areas (Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations) is usually very small. However, the impact can be significant for lower-level geographic areas (e.g., census divisions), where incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements account for a higher proportion of the population. This is especially true for lower-level geographic areas where a particular reserve or settlement was incompletely enumerated for the 2021 Census but enumerated for the 2016 Census and, vice versa.
Table 1 provides the list of incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements for the 2021 Census, along with population counts from the last two censuses (where available).
Table 2 shows, in alphabetical order, the list of incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements for the 2021 Census by province, census division and, where applicable, census metropolitan area or census agglomeration.
|Province||Incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements, 2021||Enumeration status for the 2021 Census (reasons for absence of data)||Population, 2016||Population, 2011|
|Quebec||Listuguj||Permission not given||1,514Table 1 Note 1||1,865|
|Kahnawake||Permission not given||..||..|
|Akwesasne||Permission not given||2,378Table 1 Note 1||..|
|Kanesatake||Permission not given||..||..|
|Doncaster||Permission not given||..||..|
|Lac-Rapide||Permission not given||..||..|
|Pakuashipi||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||237||312|
|Romaine 2||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||977||1,016|
|Ontario||Akwesasne (Part) 59||Permission not given||1,693Table 1 Note 1||..|
|Six Nations (Part) 40||Permission not given||..||946|
|Six Nations (Part) 40||Permission not given||..||6,213|
|Walpole Island 46||Permission not given||1,589||..|
|Chippewas of the Thames First Nation 42||Permission not given||..||762|
|Oneida 41||Permission not given||..||1,282|
|Wahta Mohawk Territory||Permission not given||..||..|
|Rankin Location 15D||Permission not given||..||..|
|Goulais Bay 15A||Permission not given||..||..|
|Obadjiwan 15E||Permission not given||0||...|
|Fort Albany (Part) 67||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||1,404||1,520|
|Pikangikum 14||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||..||..|
|Muskrat Dam Lake||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||281||260|
|Manitoba||Swan Lake 7||Permission not given||347||371|
|Little Grand Rapids 14||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||810||847|
|Poplar River 16||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||866||848|
|Pauingassi First Nation||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||307Table 1 Note 1||388|
|Oxford House 24||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||1,955||1,864|
|Granville Lake||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||10||16|
|Churchill 1||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||324||321|
|Pukatawagan 198||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||1,844Table 1 Note 1||1,826|
|Brochet 197||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||506||406|
|Shamattawa 1||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||1,019||998|
|Saskatchewan||Kinoosao-Thomas Clark 204||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||10||40|
|Alberta||Eden Valley 216||Permission not given||596||587|
|Tsuu T'ina Nation 145||Permission not given||2,271Table 1 Note 1||1,777|
|Big Horn 144A||Permission not given||237||134|
|Saddle Lake 125||Permission not given||..||..|
|Stoney 142, 143, 144||Permission not given||3,713||3,494|
|Stoney 142B||Permission not given||10||...|
|Thebathi 196||Permission not given||15||30|
|Thabacha Náre 196A||Permission not given||28||0|
|British Columbia||Peters 1||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||30||27|
|Barnston Island 3||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||49||47|
|Hesquiat 1||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||5||5|
|Refuge Cove 6||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||44||72|
|Basque 18||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||0||5|
|Kumcheen 1||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||41||39|
|Kloklowuck 7||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||5||5|
|Spences Bridge||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||5||0|
|Shawniken 4B||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||16||15|
|Salmon River 1||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||39||45|
|Canim Lake 1||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||228||224|
|Lohbiee 3||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||91||118|
|Canim Lake 2||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||5||5|
|Chilco Lake 1||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||5||43|
|Chilco Lake 1A||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||25||0|
|Tanakut 4||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||15||5|
|Lezbye 6||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||20||0|
|Alexandria||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||40||52|
|Garden||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||5||10|
|S1/2 Tsimpsean 2||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||88||83|
|Omineca 1||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||5||10|
|Francois Lake 7||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||10||10|
|Uncha Lake 13A||Dwelling enumeration could not be completed||10||5|
.. not available for a specific reference period
... not applicable
|Akwesasne (Part) 59||IRI||Ontario||Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry||...|
|Barnston Island 3||IRI||British Columbia||Greater Vancouver||Vancouver|
|Basque 18||IRI||British Columbia||Thompson-Nicola||...|
|Big Horn 144A||IRI||Alberta||Division No. 9||...|
|Brochet 197||IRI||Manitoba||Division No. 23||...|
|Canim Lake 1||IRI||British Columbia||Cariboo||...|
|Canim Lake 2||IRI||British Columbia||Cariboo||...|
|Chilco Lake 1||IRI||British Columbia||Cariboo||...|
|Chilco Lake 1A||IRI||British Columbia||Cariboo||...|
|Chippewas of the Thames First Nation 42||IRI||Ontario||Middlesex||...|
|Churchill 1||IRI||Manitoba||Division No. 23||...|
|Eden Valley 216||IRI||Alberta||Division No. 6||...|
|Fort Albany (Part) 67||IRI||Ontario||Kenora||...|
|Francois Lake 7||IRI||British Columbia||Bulkley-Nechako||...|
|Goulais Bay 15A||IRI||Ontario||Algoma||...|
|Granville Lake||S-É||Manitoba||Division No. 23||...|
|Hesquiat 1||IRI||British Columbia||Alberni-Clayoquot||...|
|Kinoosao-Thomas Clark 204||IRI||Saskatchewan||Division No. 18||...|
|Kloklowuck 7||IRI||British Columbia||Thompson-Nicola||...|
|Kumcheen 1||IRI||British Columbia||Thompson-Nicola||...|
|Lezbye 6||IRI||British Columbia||Cariboo||...|
|Little Grand Rapids 14||IRI||Manitoba||Division No. 19||...|
|Lohbiee 3||IRI||British Columbia||Cariboo||...|
|Muskrat Dam Lake||IRI||Ontario||Kenora||...|
|Omineca 1||IRI||British Columbia||Bulkley-Nechako||...|
|Oxford House 24||IRI||Manitoba||Division No. 22||...|
|Pauingassi First Nation||IRI||Manitoba||Division No. 19||...|
|Peters 1||IRI||British Columbia||Fraser Valley||...|
|Poplar River 16||IRI||Manitoba||Division No. 19||...|
|Pukatawagan 198||IRI||Manitoba||Division No. 23||...|
|Rankin Location 15D||IRI||Ontario||Algoma||Sault Ste. Marie|
|Refuge Cove 6||IRI||British Columbia||Alberni-Clayoquot||...|
|Romaine 2||IRI||Quebec||Minganie--Le Golfe-du-Saint-Laurent||...|
|S1/2 Tsimpsean 2||IRI||British Columbia||Skeena-Queen Charlotte||Prince Rupert|
|Saddle Lake 125||IRI||Alberta||Division No. 12||...|
|Salmon River 1||IRI||British Columbia||Columbia-Shuswap||...|
|Shamattawa 1||IRI||Manitoba||Division No. 23||...|
|Shawniken 4B||IRI||British Columbia||Thompson-Nicola||...|
|Six Nations (Part) 40||IRI||Ontario||Haldimand-Norfolk||...|
|Six Nations (Part) 40||IRI||Ontario||Brant||Brantford|
|Spences Bridge||IRI||British Columbia||Thompson-Nicola||...|
|Stoney 142, 143, 144||IRI||Alberta||Division No. 15||...|
|Stoney 142B||IRI||Alberta||Division No. 15||...|
|Swan Lake 7||IRI||Manitoba||Division No. 4||...|
|Tanakut 4||IRI||British Columbia||Cariboo||...|
|Thabacha Náre 196A||IRI||Alberta||Division No. 16||Wood Buffalo|
|Thebathi 196||IRI||Alberta||Division No. 16||...|
|Tsuu T'ina Nation 145||IRI||Alberta||Division No. 6||Calgary|
|Uncha Lake 13A||IRI||British Columbia||Bulkley-Nechako||...|
|Wahta Mohawk Territory||IRI||Ontario||Muskoka||...|
|Walpole Island 46||IRI||Ontario||Lambton||...|
... not applicable
IRI = Indian reserve
S-É = Indian settlement
CMA = Census metropolitan area
CA = Census agglomeration
The definition of residence on reserve includes some census subdivisions for which a First Nation has signed a modern treaty or a self-government agreement that provides them land ownership.
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2021.
Difference between census counts and population estimates
The Census of Population is designed to conduct a complete count of the population. Inevitably, however, some individuals will not be enumerated (undercoverage), while others, usually less numerous, will be enumerated more than once (overcoverage).
To determine the number of people who were missed or counted more than once, Statistics Canada conducts postcensal studies of the coverage of the census population, using representative samples of the population. Results of these studies are usually available two years after Census Day. They are used, in combination with census figures and other sources, to develop the population estimates produced by Statistics Canada on a regular basis. Population estimates are used for equalization payments, to follow trends in the Canadian population on a quarterly basis and to understand the underlying components of population change (for example, births, deaths, immigrants, emigrants and non-permanent residents). Population estimates differ from census counts and are usually higher, because census counts are not adjusted for undercoverage or overcoverage.
Historical comparison of geographic areas
The boundaries and names of census geographies can change from one census to the next. In order to facilitate data comparisons between censuses, previous census data have been adjusted to reflect as closely as possible the 2021 boundaries of these areas. The methodology used for this adjustment involved spatially linking blocks of previous censuses (concordance to the 1996 Census used the 1996 enumeration areas to the 2021 boundaries). A previous census block was linked to the 2021 area within which its representative point fell. A limited number of interactive linkages were completed to further enhance the adjustment in certain areas. For some census geographies, it was not possible to reflect the 2021 boundaries.
2021 Census gender note
Gender refers to an individual's personal and social identity as a man, woman or non-binary person (a person who is not exclusively a man or a woman).
Gender includes the following concepts:
- gender identity, which refers to the gender that a person feels internally and individually;
- gender expression, which refers to the way a person presents their gender, regardless of their gender identity, through body language, aesthetic choices or accessories (e.g., clothes, hairstyle and makeup), which may have traditionally been associated with a specific gender.
A person's gender may differ from their sex at birth, and from what is indicated on their current identification or legal documents such as their birth certificate, passport or driver's licence. A person's gender may change over time.
Some people may not identify with a specific gender.
Given that the non-binary population is small, data aggregation to a two-category gender variable is sometimes necessary to protect the confidentiality of responses provided. In these cases, individuals in the category "non-binary persons" are distributed into the other two gender categories and are denoted by the "＋" symbol.
"Men＋" includes men (and/or boys), as well as some non-binary persons.
"Women＋" includes women (and/or girls), as well as some non-binary persons.
For additional information, see Filling the gaps: Information on gender in the 2021 Census.