Coverage Technical Report, Census of Population, 2016
3. Population coverage error

3.1 Sources

Although census data collection and processing have to meet high quality standards, it is very difficult to eliminate all potential errors. There are two kinds of population coverage error. Population undercoverage refers to the exclusion of persons who should have been enumerated, and population overcoverage refers to the inclusion of persons who were enumerated more than once (generally twice). Overcoverage also includes persons who were enumerated but should not have been. However, this type of error is considered negligible; consequently, it is not measured.

Undercoverage can occur in the first stage of the census if the list of dwellings used for the dwelling universe is incomplete. This risk is higher, for example, if a dwelling is under construction. Conversely, overcoverage can occur if a dwelling is listed twice.

Coverage error can also occur during the field data collection stage. Respondent error is responsible for coverage error when the person completing the census form omits someone whose usual place of residence, according to census rules, is the dwelling concerned; this is undercoverage. The person may also include someone whose usual place of residence is not the dwelling concerned; there is overcoverage if this person has already been enumerated at their usual place of residence or somewhere else. In most cases, it is easy to determine a person’s usual place of residence. However, as stated in the previous section, the process is sometimes more complex, and special rules have been developed for determining an individual’s usual place of residence. The rules are spelled out in the census questionnaire, but the list is long, and there can be comprehension difficulties. Coverage error may result when the rules are not consulted or are incorrectly applied. The idea of using Census Day as the reference date for determining usual residence may also be misunderstood, which can lead to coverage error.

Coverage errors may also be committed during the processing stage at any point where records for persons or households are added to or removed from the census database. Records can be deleted by mistake. Questionnaires may be linked to the wrong record or returned too late to be included.

Even though efforts are made to enumerate the homeless population, the risk of undercoverage is high. Some other living arrangements are also susceptible to coverage error. For example, young adults newly away from home may be either undercovered, because neither their roommates nor their parents include them in the census questionnaire, or overcovered, because they are included in both census questionnaires. Persons who maintain a second residence because of their employment can also cause coverage error.

Users should also be aware of the extent to which Indian reserves and Indian settlements participated in the 2016 Census. In some cases, enumeration was not permitted by the community or was interrupted before it could be completed. These geographic areas (14 in all in 2016) are considered incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and settlements. There are no 2016 data for incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and settlements, and those areas are not included in the totals. Similar problems have occurred in previous censuses. For example, 22 Indian reserves and settlements were incompletely enumerated in the 2006 Census, and 31 in the 2011 Census. Of those reserves and settlements, 20 participated in the 2016 Census.

The demographic estimates for the 14 incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and settlements are based on a model. However, since no reliable source is available to verify the assumptions in the model, the estimates must be used with caution. For more information, see Section 12.2.

3.2 Control

Potential sources of coverage error were recognized during the planning stage of the 2016 Census, and the following measures were taken to minimize the associated risks:

These procedures, along with appropriate staff training, supervisory checks and quality controls during the collection and processing stages, helped to reduce the number of coverage errors.

3.3  Definitions

Algebraic definitions of coverage errors are presented in this section. Let T MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGqbaaaa@3DF5@ denote the total or the “actual” number of persons targeted by the Census of Population. Let C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGdbaaaa@3DE8@ denote the published census count of persons in the target population. The error associated with using C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGdbaaaa@3DE8@ instead of T MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGqbaaaa@3DF5@ is as follows:

N = T C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGobGaeyypa0JaamiuaiabgkHi Tiaadoeaaaa@4183@

This error, denoted as N MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGobaaaa@3DF3@ , is the net population coverage error.

Let U MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGtbaaaa@3DF7@ denote population undercoverage, the number of persons not included in C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGdbaaaa@3DE8@ who should have been.

The census count C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGdbaaaa@3DE8@ is composed of two elements:

C = E + I MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGdbGaeyypa0JaamiraiabgUca RiaadMeaaaa@4167@

Where:

E MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGtbaaaa@3DF7@ is the number of persons enumerated. This is the number of persons who were listed on a census questionnaire.

I MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGtbaaaa@3DF7@ is the number of persons imputed. This is an estimate of the number of persons missed because their dwelling was classified as occupied but non-response or misclassified as unoccupied, therefore for which no follow-up was done. For more information on whole household imputation (WHI), see Section 3.6 of the Sampling and Weighting Technical Report, Census of Population, 2016, Catalogue no. 98-306-X.

Undercoverage compared with the published census count C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGtbaaaa@3DF7@ is therefore what remains of the persons who should have been listed on a census questionnaire and who were not taken into account by the WHI. In other words, it does not include the estimate of the number of persons who were not enumerated either because no completed census questionnaire was returned for the dwelling (non-response dwelling) or because the dwelling was misclassified as unoccupied (classification error) and did not receive a questionnaire.

The concept of undercoverage before the WHI also exists. This is what is referred to as Census of Population collection undercoverage. For more information, see Section 12.1.

Let O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGsbaaaa@3DF6@ denote population overcoverage, the number of excess enumerations included in C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGsbaaaa@3DF6@ that should not have been.

O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGsbaaaa@3DF7@ has two components. One is the excess enumerations of persons enumerated more than once. Coverage studies focus on these excess enumerations. The second is persons who were enumerated but who were not in the census target population. For example, foreign residents visiting Canada who are listed on a census questionnaire as usual residents of a dwelling should not be included in C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGdbaaaa@3DE8@ . Fictitious persons are another example. According to previous studies, the number of persons who are enumerated but are not in the census target population is generally very small and can be ignored. Consequently, census coverage does not measure this component of coverage error.

Since U MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGsbaaaa@3DF7@ refers to persons who were not enumerated but should be included in C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGdbaaaa@3DE8@ and since O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGsbaaaa@3DF7@ denotes enumerations that should not be included in C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGdbaaaa@3DE8@ , the difference between T MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGqbaaaa@3DF5@ and C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGdbaaaa@3DE8@ is U MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGtbaaaa@3DF8@ less O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGsbaaaa@3DF7@ . That is:

N = U O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGobGaeyypa0Jaam4uaiabgkHi Tiaadkfaaaa@4195@

The actual number of persons in the census target population is therefore:

T = C + N = C + U O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGqbGaeyypa0Jaam4qaiabgUca Riaad6eacqGH9aqpcaWGdbGaey4kaSIaam4uaiabgkHiTiaadkfaaa a@46C4@

In practice, for reasons of cost and timeliness of the data produced, an estimate of T MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGqbaaaa@3DF5@ is given by T ^ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaaceWGqbGbaKaaaaa@3E05@ , based on sample studies, where:

T ^ = C + N ^ = C + U ^ O ^ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaaceWGqbGbaKaacqGH9aqpcaWGdbGa ey4kaSIabmOtayaajaGaeyypa0Jaam4qaiabgUcaRiqadofagaqcai abgkHiTiqadkfagaqcaaaa@4704@

U ^ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaaceWGtbGbaKaaaaa@3E08@ is an estimate of the number of persons not included in C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGdbaaaa@3DE8@ who should have been, and O ^ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaaceWGsbGbaKaaaaa@3E07@ is an estimate of the number of persons included in C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGsbaaaa@3DF6@ who should not have been. We can assume that overcoverage from persons included in C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGdbaaaa@3DE8@ who are not in the census target population is zero, since it is negligible. Consequently, O ^ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaaceWGsbGbaKaaaaa@3E07@ is simply an estimate of the number of duplicate enumerations. The purpose of census coverage studies is to determine the values of U ^ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaaceWGtbGbaKaaaaa@3E08@ and O ^ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaaceWGsbGbaKaaaaa@3E07@ .

In summary, the actual population T MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGqbaaaa@3DF5@ is composed of the census count C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGdbaaaa@3DE8@ and the net undercoverage N MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGobaaaa@3DF3@ . This is referred to as net undercoverage because U MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGsbaaaa@3DF6@ is generally larger than O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGsbaaaa@3DF6@ in the context of the current census in Canada. However, the opposite is possible, whereby N MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGsbaaaa@3DF6@ would be negative. C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGdbaaaa@3DE8@ consists of E MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGebaaaa@3DE9@ plus the number of persons added in WHI, and this imputation I MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGjbaaaa@3DEE@ targets persons living in non-response dwellings or in occupied dwellings misclassified as unoccupied.

Census population coverage errors can generally be expressed as rates relative to the actual population. The undercoverage rate R U MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGubWaaSbaaSqaaiaadofaaeqa aaaa@3EFD@ is U MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGtbaaaa@3DF8@ as a percentage of T MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGqbaaaa@3DF5@ . The overcoverage rate R O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGubWaaSbaaSqaaiaadkfaaeqa aaaa@3EFC@ is O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGsbaaaa@3DF7@ as a percentage of T MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGqbaaaa@3DF5@ . The net undercoverage rate R N MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGubWaaSbaaSqaaiaad6eaaeqa aaaa@3EF8@ is the difference between U MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGtbaaaa@3DF8@ and O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGsbaaaa@3DF7@ as a percentage of the census target population. These three rates can be estimated by R ^ U MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaaceWGubGbaKaadaWgaaWcbaGaam4u aaqabaaaaa@3F0D@ , R ^ O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaaceWGubGbaKaadaWgaaWcbaGaamOu aaqabaaaaa@3F0C@ and R ^ N MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaaceWGubGbaKaadaWgaaWcbaGaamOt aaqabaaaaa@3F08@ , as follows:

R ^ U = 100 * U ^ T ^ = 100 * U ^ C + N ^ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaaceWGubGbaKaadaWgaaWcbaGaam4u aaqabaGccqGH9aqpcaaIXaGaaGimaiaaicdacaGGQaWaaSaaaeaace WGtbGbaKaaaeaaceWGqbGbaKaaaaGaeyypa0JaaGymaiaaicdacaaI WaGaaiOkamaalaaabaGabm4uayaajaaabaGaam4qaiabgUcaRiqad6 eagaqcaaaaaaa@4C3F@

R ^ O = 100 * O ^ T ^ = 100 * O ^ C + N ^ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaaceWGubGbaKaadaWgaaWcbaGaamOu aaqabaGccqGH9aqpcaaIXaGaaGimaiaaicdacaGGQaWaaSaaaeaace WGsbGbaKaaaeaaceWGqbGbaKaaaaGaeyypa0JaaGymaiaaicdacaaI WaGaaiOkamaalaaabaGabmOuayaajaaabaGaam4qaiabgUcaRiqad6 eagaqcaaaaaaa@4C3C@

R ^ N = 100 * N ^ T ^ = 100 * ( U ^ O ^ C + N ^ ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaaceWGubGbaKaadaWgaaWcbaGaamOt aaqabaGccqGH9aqpcaaIXaGaaGimaiaaicdacaGGQaWaaSaaaeaace WGobGbaKaaaeaaceWGqbGbaKaaaaGaeyypa0JaaGymaiaaicdacaaI WaGaaiOkamaabmaabaWaaSaaaeaaceWGtbGbaKaacqGHsislceWGsb GbaKaaaeaacaWGdbGaey4kaSIabmOtayaajaaaaaGaayjkaiaawMca aaaa@4F92@

A positive net undercoverage rate indicates that the undercoverage rate is higher than the overcoverage rate. That is, the number of people not included in the published census count C MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfKttLearuGrYvMBJHgitnMCPbhDG0evam XvP5wqSXMqHnxAJn0BKvguHDwzZbqegqvATv2CG4uz3bIuV1wyUbqe dmvETj2BSbqegm0B1jxALjhiov2DaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rrpk 0dbbf9q8WrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8vrpy0dd9qqpae9q8qqvqFr0dXdHiVc =bYP0xH8peuj0lXxfrpe0=vqpeeaY=brpwe9Fve9Fve8meaacaGacm GadaWaaiqacaabaiaafaaakeaacaWGdbaaaa@3DE8@ is higher than the number of excess enumerations. That is generally the case for all Canadian censuses. For some domains of interest, however, negative net undercoverage is sometimes observed.

3.4 Evaluation

Two postcensal studies were carried out to estimate the 2016 Census population coverage error. The Reverse Record Check (RRC) provided estimates for population undercoverage, while the Census Overcoverage Study (COS) estimated population overcoverage. As previously mentioned, the Dwelling Classification Survey (DCS) does not contribute to census coverage error estimates since census counts are already adjusted to take DCS results into account.

The RRC and COS were conducted subsequent to field collection and census processing operations. Preliminary estimates of 2016 Census population coverage error were released on March 29, 2018. Following an in-depth validation exercise with the Demography Division and the provincial and territorial statistical focal points, final estimates were released on September 27, 2018. The data were released at the same time as the new official demographic estimates reflecting the update of the base population to the 2016 Census. Census population counts adjusted for net population undercoverage constituted the updated estimates of the base population.

A brief description of the methodology used in the two census coverage studies is presented below:

Reverse Record Check (RRC)

In the RRC, a random sample of individuals representing the 2016 Census target population was selected from frames independent of the census. These frames are described in Section 7.1. The 2016 RRC sample consisted of 67,872 persons in the provinces and 2,595 persons in the territories. The 2016 Census database was then searched to determine whether these persons had indeed been enumerated.

Where necessary, interviews were conducted, mostly via computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) from the regional offices (ROs), to collect information for use in additional searches of the 2016 Census database. An interview was completed for 82.1% of the 15,584 cases sent to the ROs. The sampling weight was adjusted for non-response. Specifically, the total sampling weight of non-respondents was divided among groups of respondents most like the non-respondents in their response probability.

The estimate of population undercoverage is based on the number of persons in the RRC sample who were classified as “missed.” These persons were part of the target population for the 2016 Census, but no evidence of enumeration could be found in the 2016 Census Response Database. Nationally, 4,821 persons in the RRC sample were classified as missed in the provinces and 1,128 in the territories.

Census Overcoverage Study (COS)

Overcoverage was measured by matching the final 2016 Census database to itself, and then matching the final 2016 Census database and a list of persons who should have been enumerated according to administrative data sources. Probabilistic linkage was used for matching. Probabilistic linkage identifies matches that are close but not exact. A sample of potential duplicates was selected for each linkage, and demographic characteristics and names were examined to identify true cases of overcoverage.

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